Blog

Making a traditional Siberian Yakut knife

Here is a great write up by a fellow craftsman and a former service man Alex with Traditional Tools http://www.traditional-tools.com/making-a-siberian-yakut-knife/22

Advertisements

Yakut Knife. Book by Mandar Uus (Translated by Anton Salnikov)

You can get one of these hand crafted items of native art by visiting our SHOP

29

Dear Reader

A native Yakut /Evenki man from early childhood is growing up carrying on his belt a knife with a wooden burl handle and a sharp blade in a sheath. Keeper of  the pure sole and guardian  against all evil. Dependable friend of a hunter, handy birch bark craftsman, blacksmith or a carpenter. Universal hand tool, indispensable item of everyday life, “extension of a northman’s hand”- as sincerely, respectfully and with love called the Siberian
Yakut knife Boris Neustroev – Mandar Uus.

Indeed, in the harsh environment of the north it is an irreplaceable thing. In the old times and until modern day, a Siberian man can not manage without it and every self-respecting Siberian must have his own knife, hand crafted by a master-craftsman. Each knife defines the character of its owner.

The Siberian Yakut knife although almost forgotten, managed to make it to the modern days in its original significance, unique form, and character, while at the same time gaining the modern day decorative attributes, re-emerging with ancient legends and good will.

1390110781_4

The ancient crafts, representing the talent and skill, traditions and believes, wisdom of our people is the indisputable rich heritage of our ancestors. The significant scientific interest towards these crafts suggests the desire of our people to learn their past, history and culture, in order to confidently enter the future.

3

The people that remember, observe and respect their traditions will have a bright future.  This is the reason why in the settlement of “Bayaginsky” in the “Tatinsky” ulus (region of Yakutia, Russia) a school of traditional arts “Mandyr Kyhata” was recently opened , in order to inherit traditional craft of our people, and pass on the knowledge, skills and secrets of our ancestors, and teach them to our youth and generations to follow.

We teach our boys and girls the traditional occupations: blacksmithing, carpentry, sawing, fostering craftsmanship skills, and passing on the wisdom of the ancient folk master-craftsmen. With mentor’s guidance the students collect material for their academic research, and as a result we publish academic brochures, research papers and catalogs.

In 2001 the director of the publishing home “Bichik” A.V. Egorov after familiarizing himself with my paper “The Yakutian Knife” suggested that “The research needs to be expanded in breadth and depth and some historical materials and publish a comprehensive work.” I took on these words as a task.

This work in front of you, is the result of several years of collective hard work  of a group of craftsmen. Priceless materials and advice was provided by the master-craftsmen: Boris Fedorovich Neustroev (Rus. name) – (Yakut name Mandar Uss), Seryal Biliukin, Peter Lukovcev, Ilyan Pavlov, Alexander Danilov, and many others.

May the fortune be with you, march forward step-in-step with time.

I.I. Egorov

Researchers about Yakut Knife.

The Yakut knife has been well researched. Mesmerized and proud of this blade many artists, photographs and movie makers depicted the Yakut knife in their work, praising it for its characteristics. The early researcher, the author of a monographic work “Memories” Afanasy Y. Uvarovsky in his book “Travels to the Northern and Eastern Siberia”  published in 1848, provide the following characteristics to the Yakut knife:

“The Yakut knife is flexible and can be bent all the way to the handle. The knife is very handy at crafting bowls, cups and other dishes. It is very flexible and soft as aluminum but does not get dull.”

From the time of the early (15th century) settlers the Russians highly regarded Yakut metalworks.  It is known that the early Russian settlers in Siberia preferred to carry Yakut battle helmets.

The Russian researchers who studied the culture, traditions and customs of the indigenous people of Siberia contributed significantly to the historical accounts and, left  for us, the following generations, their notes, descriptions and sketches.

Traveler, scientific researcher Aleksander F. Middendorf and ethnographer axhiled by the Tzar government to Siberia Vazlav L. Seroshevsky vigorously studied Yakutia customs, including the traditional tools of the trade, detailed description of which we find in their publications.

Axes, horse gear, arrow heads, spears and other forged metal items found in excavated graves were acknowledged to be very similar to nomadic cultures of Asian and European steppes. (Scythian Sarmatian cultures)

23

Fig 1. Yakut knives described by Seroshevsky 1892.

V.L. Soroshevsky  writes “I was particularly amazed by the knives of that period very similar in details with contemporary Yakut blades”

After visiting the Moscow’s Museum of Natural History he wrote “Now, I also note the three oval buckles on the harness that by anyone who has ever seen the Yakut musical instrument
Hamus (aka Vargan) would be recognized as its distant cousins.

Moreover, Seroshevsky noted many similarities in the burial ceremony. Therefore, he concludes that Yakut traditional of metalworks has its origin in that culture.

Here is how Seroshevsky describes the Yakut knife ” Yakut knives are not large, seldom blade is longer than 4// and  wider than 1/2//. The back of the knife is dull from 3 to 5 lines (3 lines is 7.62 mm) thick. The tip is sharp. The edge has a slight bend. As you can see from the sketch (Fig 3) the blade has three edges, with the sheath made of bull tail leather and leather belt loop. The knife enters the sheath with its edge towards the belt, hence safe when taken out unlike a fighting knife.

24

Fig 2. Beginning of XX century. Yakutia region. Foto A.P. Kurochkin. Yaroslavsky, Yakutsk, State museum of History and Culture of the Indigenous people of the North.

Therefore, after compering the Yakut knives with knives discovered in Mongolian, Buriat, Urianhai tombs of the European and Asian steppes, one can conclude that Yakut knives is an example of a completely different design.

22

Fig 3. Knives described by Seroshevsky in his work “The Yakuts”

At the same time if compared with contemporary Yakut knives there are no significant differences.

26

Fig 4. Beginning of XX century. Yakut man is cutting tobacco with a Yakut knife.

V.L. Seroshevsky (1892)  also noted the following “Recently a Russian commercial knife is replacing everywhere in Siberia the traditional indigenous knives. The Yakut knives so far are an exception.”  It has been 120 years and the same can be stated today.

In the Ethnography Museum of Stuttgart Germany one can find a large collection of Siberian Yakut knives. (not these of course ) A Hungarian ethnographer, a geographer and a polio-anthropologist Jan Turza writes about this collection in his book “The Yakut Collection in Linden’s Museum of Stuttgart” published in 2009. Fig 5.  The knives were brought to Germany from Russia at the turn of the last century. This is how Turza describes the knives. ” All Siberian Yakut Knives have a rat-tail tang mounted into a solid wooden handle. The handles have many forms and made of verious materials Most commonly the handles are made of root burls in combination with other materials such as antlers and animal bones, or even precious metals such as silver. The sheaths are made of birch bark, or wood covered by leather with various silver decorations. Some knives are elaborately decorated suggesting that their purpose is not solely utilitarian but they are also used as a part of the traditional ceremonial dress.

25

Fig 5. From the book of Yan Turza.”The Yakut Collection in Linden’s Museum of Stuttgart” published in 2009.

27537485_10159879143825394_232359080_o

Fig 6. Knives found during excavations. A.Alexeev “Ancient Yakutia: Iron Age and the 27604422_10159879146160394_216758422_oMiddle Ages”

27537128_10159879143970394_584150215_o

Fig 7. From the collection of ethnography museum of the M.K. Amosov’s North-East federal University. Early Iron Age 2.5 thousand years ago. Fount at the origin of the river Ulakhon, Segelennyakh, Olekminsky ulus.

27604043_10159879144265394_864546154_o

Fig 8. Knife and a sheath from Birch bark and leather. XVIII century. Oleneksky ulus.

27537282_10159879144420394_191988526_o.jpg

Fig 9. Knives and sheaths discovered by archaeologist in Verhoyansk and Use-Aldanskom ulus’.

27707395_10159879144375394_93779886_o.jpg

Fig 10. Yakut Barrial XVI century. Churpachinsky Ulus.

27604242_10159879144640394_2001991379_o

Fig 11. Knives and sheaths beginning of XX century. Drawings of M.M. Nosov.

27604488_10159879144935394_175234485_o.jpg

Fig 12. Knives and sheaths beginning of XX century. Drawings of M.M. Nosov.

Knives from the museum expositions 

27605226_10159879144955394_241645494_o.jpg

Fig 13. Knife with antler handle. Historical museum of Architecture I.P. Gotovcev. Tanda Ust-Aldansky Ulus.

27711121_10159879145070394_855705135_o

Fig 14. Knife with antler sheath and antler handle. Homeland knowledge Museum Zabolotzkogo. Tomtor. Oymyakon Ulus.

27650459_10159879145110394_734066339_o

Fig 15 Knife and a blank. Museum of folk learning. Orosy, Verhnevilysky Ulus.

27604709_10159879145200394_23867328_o.jpg

Fig 16. Knife with a wooden handle. Middle of XX century. Museum of first settlers and diamond trade. Krestyakh, Suntaysky Ulus.

27604581_10159879145255394_1496374585_o.jpg

Fig 18. Sait Petersburg Peter The Grate Museum of anthropology “Kuntzcamera” 1994 Cultural heritage of Sakha people.  Knifemaker Gogolev’s Knives.

27603971_10159879145545394_563413395_o.jpg

Fig. 19 Knife maker Kononov and Androsov’s  knives

Knives from a collection of Yakutsk joined museum of history and culture.

27653099_10159879145630394_1650783977_o.jpg

Fig 20. Knife-maker S.I. Gogolev.  Sheath and handle by G.H. Shadrin.

27652852_10159879145800394_850632290_o.jpg

Fig. 21 Knife and a sheath by I.F. Zakharov. Vilyusk.

27604422_10159879146160394_216758422_o

Fig 22. Master Ignatiev.

Extracting iron from the iron ore.

27604312_10159879146220394_1638303997_o.jpg

Fig 23. Yakut smiths in 1905.

27604603_10159879146285394_402871178_o

Fig 24. Crud iron ore.

In many villages of the vast Yakutia there are places named “Timir Umapyt” or “Pit where the iron is melted”  Likewise many stories are alive about places where in the old days  smiths were extracting metal from the ore. All this is the evidence that Yakuts forged metal since the early days. In the village of Bayaga the locals still tell the story how in the early 20th century the Russian merchant Krivoshapkin delivered the iron ore for their smiths from the Oymiakon mountains using hundred horses.

27711403_10159886793330394_142768723_o

Fig 25.   Artist T.A. Stepanov. Process of melting iron ore.

27650651_10159886793270394_1427491249_o

Fig 26. Iron extracted from the ore.

27606100_10159886793265394_1703962624_o

Fig 27. Sketch by V.L. Seroshevsky. Yakut blacksmiths 1800s.

27537709_10159879146510394_1518294034_o

Fig 28. Yakut blacksmith 1800s

 

27653181_10159879146515394_2096524728_o

Fig 29. Yakut blacksmith XIX century.  Painting by I.U. Pistryakov.

 

27652787_10159879146625394_821171296_o.jpg

Fig 30. 2010 smiths Extracting iron from crude ore in Tatinsky Region Yakutia

27606102_10159879146860394_970405274_o.jpg

Fig 31. 2010 smiths Extracting iron from crude ore in Tatinsky Region Yakutia

27653359_10159879147065394_669013506_o

27604248_10159879147055394_1217595100_o

27650254_10159886792870394_1786447506_o

27653837_10159886792895394_2095147496_o

27708088_10159886792860394_1612695905_o.jpg27744676_10159886792980394_2108147154_o

Blacksmith Tools

27605940_10159886792845394_1213076565_o

Fig 33

 

27744735_10159886792710394_2003839906_o

Fig 34.

27606178_10159886792670394_1474416541_o.jpg

Fig 35. Metal plate for forging holes, holders, etc..

27605951_10159886792715394_1578310670_o.jpg

Fig 36.

 

27605884_10159886792680394_1958224836_o

Fig 37.

Stages in crafting a Yakut Knife.

27606249_10159886790430394_2070620660_o

Fig 38. Shaping the blank. Stage 1 -moving the material. Stage 2 forging the tail. Stage 3 shaping the blade.

27653228_10159886790380394_460942617_o.jpg

Fig 39. Forging the fuller. Flat forging technique.

27710847_10159886790375394_2104392342_o

Fig 40. Folk craftsman A.A. Kolodeznikov

27653640_10159886790255394_1185095913_o

Fig 41. Forging a fuller. Three different traditional techniques for forging a fuller.

27650700_10159886790215394_653306980_o

Fig 42. Blacksmith E.V. Shestakov.

27708069_10159886790205394_1421844846_o

1.jpg

Fig 43. Temperature scale for steel heating.

27650734_10159886790180394_648831996_o

Fig 44. Folk craftsman Neustroev Mandar Uus.

27605567_10159886790110394_523832314_o

Fig 45. Folk craftsman V.V. Gotovcev.

27651319_10159886790000394_1829668157_o

 

27653551_10159886789695394_888696561_o

Fig 46. Tempering steel.

27711620_10159886789845394_1492357280_o

27651178_10159886789545394_1064695354_o

47. Blade forged from several layers of steel (Damascus blade) Smiths Lukovcev and Tatarinov.

27711019_10159886789840394_90488152_o

 

Fig 47 There is evidence suggesting that the traditional Yakut smiths possessed the secrets of Damascus steel. For example the knife shown here that was found by archeologists was fuse-forged from different types of steel in several layers.

Modern Knives

27650330_10159886785075394_1913473715_o

From the ancient times many cultures were evaluating the social status of a person by the beauty of the blade their carried – as many examples of knives decorated with precious metals and stones exist. In many historical paintings we can observe blades elaborately decorated to be used as accessories for royalties,  noblemen, sultans, and great military leaders of the world. These blades highlight their owners high status in the society and were created by the most skilled craftsmen with top notch  skills.

These days the Yakut knife is known around the world as one of the unique creations of human mind. The Yakut blade smiths demonstrate their skills in many trade shows and competitions and grub significant attention, admiration and favourable feedback. Several craftsmen are renowned on the world stage as master craftsmen S.K. Bilyukin – the winner of an international competition “Klinok” an a ten time ultimate champion of a Russian Bladesmith competition amongst knife makers. S.K. Potapov also received several recognized awards. Mr. Neustroev Mandar Uus was the first modern craftsman to introduce figurative fullers on Yakut blades.

27606284_10159886785070394_1424203951_o

 

27605995_10159886785515394_1770418261_o

27606135_10159886784915394_45608205_o

Knives by Craftsman B.F. Neustroev – Mandar Uus. 27650295_10159886785335394_996847427_o27605749_10159886785180394_1557913174_o

27650485_10159886785280394_535774673_o

27708035_10159886785605394_1749278798_o

27707987_10159886785095394_857694781_o

27707927_10159886785600394_500555708_o

(Translated to English by Anton Salnikov)

SHOP NOW

Traditional Yakut knives materials

BIRCH! Birch is an amazing tree! Up north we are truly blessed by the Creator to have such an amazing plant that gives us all its treasures: 1. WOOD/BURL. Very light strong wood to craft cups, spoons etc…. Karelian birch wood pattern looks amazing on knife handles. Burls on roots are the best traditional material for Yakut knives handles because of their density and strength. 2. BIRCH BARK to craft everything with. Birch bark does not absorb water, does not rot, does not absorb odours (bread placed in a birch bark container does not develop mold because or the natural antiseptic properties of birch bark. 3. CHAGA. Well chaga is all around natural healer that grows as a fungi on birches. 4. BIRCH TAR. Birch tar is extracted from the birch bark and possess amazing antiseptic and unti-bacterial properties. It has been used for centuries as a lubricant and in traditional medicine. Birch tar helps with all kinds of skin conditions. I think the list continues … Am I forgetting anything? Oh and everyone knows that birch bark would start you your fire even in the most atrocious conditions in a second when everything else in the woods is wet or frozen …. #ForgedKnives #SiberianKnives #knifemaking#new_knife #Yakut #knifeporn #knife #knivesofinstagram #huntingknife#hunting #siberia #Yakutknife #нож #резьбапорогу #охота#якутскийнож #traditional #traditionalart #Bushcraft #Preppers#YakutKnives #Survival #Carving #AntonSalnikov #AntonSalnikovKnives

First blog post

I craft the belt loops of my knives from the traditional genuine hair of the Yakut horses. Yakut forces are amazing animals.  A Yakut horse is an amazing example of survival and adoptability. By far probably the toughest creature to ever inhabit this planet, the Yakutian horse (Yakut: Саха ата, Sakha ata), sometimes called the Yakut horse, Yakut pony or simply the Yakut, is a rare native horse breed from the Siberian Sakha Republic (or Yakutia) region. It is large compared to the otherwise similar Mongolian horse and Przewalski’s horse (the former being a breed; the latter the last wild horse in the world).[1] It is noted for its adaptation to the extreme cold climate of Yakutia, including the ability to locate and graze on vegetation that is under deep snow cover,[2] and to survive without shelter in temperatures that reach −70 °C (−94 °F). #ForgedKnives#SiberianKnives #knifemaking #new_knife #Yakut #knifeporn #knife#knivesofinstagram #huntingknife #hunting #siberia #Yakutknife #нож#резьбапорогу #охота #якутскийнож #traditional #traditionalart#Bushcraft #Preppers #YakutKnives #Survival #Carving #AntonSalnikov#AntonSalnikovKnives

Siberian Style hand forged axe

I love the look of the traditional long bearded Slavic/Viking axe. The ancient design was driven by the price of iron ore back in the day, when it was just as expensive as gold. The long beard of the axe allows for a longer cutting age with minimum use of the valued material. In the modern day using less iron is no longer an advantage as the metal is widely available and is relatively inexpensive. However, the light weight achieved by using less material to create a longer/larger blade is very much still is an applicable  advantage of this old traditional design. Years in the army with a few years in the light infantry made me appreciate the comfort and weight of the tools that I carry with me in the bush. When packing your rucksack for a wilderness outing the weight can add up quick. In the survival situation the wight of your tools may make a difference between life and death when insomnia and fatigue kicks in reducing your chances for survival.

CHECK OUT MY SHOP

UNADJUSTEDNONRAW_thumb_d08.jpg